Intellectual Property, Bibliographic Referencing and Citation

It is important for you to be able to read and interpret a reference, and for your assignments in this course to know how to write one properly. There are no absolute rules for setting out references, but certain information must be given. The information given here shows referencing in the Harvard style but different styles of referencing are used in different disciplines, so that the accepted conventions in, say, the biological sciences may be different from those in business or economics.

What to Reference

You must always give a reference in the text during, or directly after, each sentence or short section in which you draw upon or summarise someone’s work or ideas.

Initially, when referring to a particular source, you simply give:

the author (s) surname (either in the text or in brackets)
the date of publication (in brackets)
page number if quoting directly or referring to a point clearly located on a particular page

Full details are listed alphabetically in the bibliography/references at the end.

a) If you are using a book with a single author you simply give the author’s surname and date of publication in the text. Include the page number if appropriate.

e.g. Those involved in club culture tend to differentiate themselves from a constructed notion of ‘mainstream culture’ (Thornton, 1995)

e.g. According to Thornton (1995, p.99), those involved in club culture tend to differentiate themselves from a constructed notion of ‘mainstream culture’.

b) If you are citing several works by an author from the same year, distinguish them by adding “a, b, c,…..” to the year

e.g. Two recent studies by Smith (2006a, 2006b) have raised interesting questions …

c) If you are summarising several pieces of work, list them in alphabetical order.

e.g. Smith’s (1992) work has been criticised by a number of writers (Brown 2004, Douglas 1999, Peake, 2000).

e) If there are more than three authors, cite the first author’s surname followed by ‘et al’ (meaning ‘and all the rest’).

e.g. Barnevik et al (2000) argue that the EU enlargement process may have lost its way

f) If you are using a secondary source (i.e. you use a quote that you read in the work of another author).

It is always preferable for you to find, read and reference from the original source, especially if you make repeated references to it. However, occasionally it will be necessary to rely upon someone else’s summary. Give the author of the point you wish to reference, followed by ‘cited in’ and the normal reference for the book or article in which you saw the work cited. Your text must make it clear that you have not read the original work. In your list of references you should only include the reference where you read about the original work.

e.g. Stan Cohen argues that, prior to the moral panics about mods and rockers in the mass media, there was very little violence or rivalry between the two groups (Cohen, cited in Thornton, 1995, p.120).

Parenthetical Reference

In the text of your assignment or thesis:
The first gambling Web site appeared in 1995, and “online gambling has since become the most lucrative Internet business” (Will 92).

Sample Bibliography / Reference list

The bibliography, or reference list, is arranged alphabetically by author, and within each separate author’s name, chronologically. If the dates are not known, then they are listed alphabetically by title. To make it easier to find references, it is usual to put the date of publication immediately after the author’s name.

Bibliographies are normally single spaced but separated by a double space.

Ayres, R. (1999) The essence of professional issues in computing. London: Prentice Hall.

Bainbridge, D. I. (2000) Introduction to computer law. London: Pearson Education.

Green, A. (2004a) Growth through reason. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Green, A. (2004b) Trends in reasoning. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Lloyd, I.J. (1977) Information Technology. London: Butterworth.

Nielsen, N. and Winskel, G. (1996) ‘Petri nets and bisimulation’ Theoretical Computer Science, 153(1-2), pp.211-244.

Privacy Rights Clearing House. (2009) Privacy and the internet: travelling in cyberspace safely (Factsheet 18). Available at: (Accessed: 14 July 2009)

Shields, M.W. (1985) ‘Concurrent machines’ Computer Journal, 28(5), pp.449- 465.

Footnotes and Endnotes

Footnotes (found at the bottom of each page) or endnotes (found at the end of the paper) are used to document quotations or paraphrased passages. Within the body of the paper, superscript numbers indicate the materials taken from sources.

In the text of your assignment or thesis:
…similar historical legacy of heavy governmental involvement in business. 1

In your Bibliography list:

Min Chen, Asian Management Systems: Chinese, Japanese and Korean Styles of Business. (Routledge: 1995), p.155

Referencing Media and the Internet

Since we make such extensive use of these resources, it is important that we follow accepted procedures in reports. Here are some as proposed by the librarians at the University of Surrey.

Journal Articles

• author’s surname (comma, initials, full stop)

• year of publication (in brackets)

• title of article (between single inverted commas ‘ ‘ )

• title of journal (in italics )

• volume number and issue/ part number e.g. 28(5)

• page numbers of the article

e.g. Lievrouw, L. (2001) ‘New media and the pluralization of live-worlds: a role for information in social differentiation’, New Media and Society, 3(1), pp. 7-28.


• author’s surname (comma, initials, full stop)

• year of publication (in brackets)

• title of article (between single inverted commas ‘ ‘ )

• title of journal (in italics )

• volume number and issue, page numbers

• name of collection (in italics)

• [online]

• Available at :URL of web page

• (Accessed: date)

e.g. Lievrouw, L. (2001) ‘New media and the pluralization of live-worlds: a role for information in social differentiation’, New Media and Society , 3(1), pp. 7-28. Sage Premier 2008 [Online] Available at (Accessed: 10 July 2009)

Newspaper and Magazine Articles

• author

• year of publication (in round brackets)

• title of article (in single quotation marks)

• name of newspaper/magazine (in italics )

• edition if required (in round brackets)

• day and month

• page reference

e.g. Old, D. (2008) ‘House price gloom’, Evening Chronicle (Newcastle edn), 26 June, p.25.

Electronic Newspaper Articles

• author’s surname (comma, initials, full stop)

• year of publication (in brackets)

• title of article (between single inverted commas ‘ ‘ )

• name of newspaper/magazine (in italics )

• date (day, month)

• page(s)

• location within host.

• [online]

• Available at :URL of web page

• (Accessed: date)

e.g. Smith G. (2008) ‘Foul food: can the Government protect us from killer bugs?’ The Independent 10 January p.1 Infotrac Full Text Newspaper Database [Online] Available at: (Accessed 10 July 2009)

Other Internet Sources

Web Sites

• author/editor’s surname (comma, initials, full stop) or name of organisation

• year that the site was published/last updated (in brackets)

• title of internet site (italics)

• Available at: URL

• (Accessed: date)

e.g. BBC (2009) Young resent ‘negative images’. Available at: (Accessed: 10 July 2009).


Many authors give first names or aliases. Use the name they have used in your reference

• author of message (comma, initials, full stop)

• year of publication or last update (in brackets)

• title of message (in single inverted commas)

• title of internet site (italics)

• day/month of posted message

• Available at: URL

• (Accessed: date)

e.g. Peston, R. (2009) ‘Why banks must be allowed to die’, Peston’s Picks, 26 June. Available at: (Accessed: 10 July 2009)


• Author’/presenter

• year that the site was published / last updated (in round brackets)

• title of podcast (in single quotation marks)

• Title of internet site (in italics)

• [Podcast]

• Day/month of posted message

• Available at: URL

• (Accessed: date)

e.g. Verity, A. and Clark, M. (2010) ‘BA losses’, Wake up to money [Podcast]. 5 February. Available at: (Accessed: 25 July 2010).


Wikipedia is not authored solely by accredited researchers, anyone can add to it, so please check whether your department considers Wikipedia an acceptable source. As with any source, especially those of unknown authorship, you should be wary and independently verify the accuracy of Wikipedia information. See Wikipedia’s own “Caution on academic use of Wikipedia” at

According to Wikipedia’s own recommendations at: you are advised to:

• not cite any particular author or authors for a Wikipedia article as it is collaboratively written. Cite Wikipedia as the author

• For the date click on ‘ History ‘ link to find the date and time of the article revision you are using because the page may well change between when you view it and when someone else following your reference views it.

• title of article (italics )

• [online]

• Available at: include the full article URL by clicking ” Permanent link ” in the toolbox on the left of the page. This lets the URL include a unique identifier such that you can tie your reference back to the exact version of the article you are referencing.

• (Accessed: date and time)

e.g. Wikipedia (2009) Citing Wikipedia. Available at: (Accessed: 14 July 2009)


• Screen name

• date of broadcast (in brackets)

• title of item (italics)

• Available at: URL

• [Accessed: date]

e.g. MoonWalkerJackson (2009) Michael Jackson you are not alone. Available at: (Accessed: 14 July 2009)

Media sources

Television programmes

• title of programme (italics)

• year of transmission (in brackets)

• name of channel

• date of transmission (day/ month)

e.g. Little Britain (2005) BBC Two Television, 23 June.

DVD/Video Recordings/Blu-ray

• title (in italics )

• year of distribution (in brackets)

• director

• [DVD] or [Video] or [Blu-ray]

• place of distribution: distribution company

e.g. Fahrenheit 9/11 (2004). Directed by Michael Moore [DVD] Burbank, California: Columbia Tristar.

Sound Recording

• Musical artist (surname, initial)

• Date of release

• Title of track (between single inverted commas ‘ ‘ )

• Title of album (italics)

• CD

• Place of distribution: distribution Company.

e.g. Robbie Williams (1997) ‘Let me entertain you’, Life thru a lens. [CD] London: Chrysalis Records.

(With thanks to the Library & Learning Support unit of the University of Surrey, (2011). Available at: (Accessed: 30 May 2011.)

# # #

Attestation of Original Intellectual Property

(All students are required to sign and return the following attestation:)


Student Name:  ______________________________________


Country:              ______________________________________


Date:                     ______________________________________


Title and reference of report:  ____________________________________________


I hereby sign to attest that all content of my term paper submitted for this course is my own original intellectual property and has not been taken from other sources and used here without the referencing and attribution which is appropriate for not only all academic work but also anything which is published in any form.


I have carefully read the document which appears on the website for this course under the heading “Intellectual Property, Bibliographic Referencing and Citation” – – and sign here to attest that I have fully respected the guidelines set out there.


I understand that all reports in this course are being rigorously controlled for original intellectual content, and that failure to adhere to these guidelines will result in a failing grade in the course.




__________________________________________      _____________________________

                                         Name                                                                                                      Date

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