A paradigm originally mean pattern or model, however it is a standard, perspective, or set of ideas, based in cultural ideas. A paradigm is a way of looking at something. It is the commonly accepted views about a subject, a structure of what direction research should take and how it should be performed.
Thomas Kuhn was a historian and philosopher of American science, known for his contribution to the shift of philosophy and scientific sociology in the sixties. In 1962, he published the book “The structure of scientific revolutions” in which he described the evolution of basic science in a complete different point of view. Kuhn described the Paradigm as “the practices that define a scientific discipline at certain point in time”, he also said “universally recognized scientific achievements that, for a time, provide model problems and solutions for a community of researchers”
System: “a set of principles or procedures according to which something is done” (defined by Google)
Complex systems are a key element to sustainability. Problems that are difficult to solve are often hard to understand because the causes and effects are not obviously related. The field of complex systems cuts across all traditional disciplines of science, as well as engineering, management, and medicine. It is about studying the individual components, the whole and their collective behaviors.
Thomas Piketty was born in 1971 and grew up in Clichy, in the suburbs of Paris. He is a French economist and professor at the École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS) and Paris School of Economics. He specialized in economic inequalities.
Piketty entered the École Normal Supérieur at 18 years old. At only 22 he obtained his PhD from EHESS. This thesis about wealth redistribution won him the French Economics Association’s award for the best thesis in 1993.
In 2015 he refuses his Knight of the Legion of Honor nomination because he refuses because « It shouldn’t be the role of a government to say who is honorable »
He was a businessman Canadian that born April of 1929 in Oak Lake Manitoba, specialising in oil and mineral resources. He started as enterpriser in the petroleum área and he worked in different companies of the sector as Power Corporation of Canada, also he was secretary general of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment and become chief executive officer of Petro-Canada. He is recognized as a leader of the international environmental movements.
For other hand he was president of the Council of the University for Peace from 1998 to 2006. Today he is professor of the Peking University and honorary chairman of its Environmental Foundation.
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Wikipedia is created in January of two thousand one by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sange, It has different numbers of the information distribution, for instances: Culture and arts, Biographies and people, Geography and places, History and events, Natural sciences, Technology and applied sciences, Religions and beliefs, Health, Mathematics and logic and Philosophy.
Jeisson needs 1.5 Planet Earths (see his comments)